What is Cotton?
Cotton is the versatile pure cellulose fiber obtained from the cotton plant commonly used worldwide.
It holds moisture longer which keeps the body cool and gives natural comfort. - Is highly breathable and absorbent commonly used to make warm-weather clothing.
Different types of cotton fabrics are:
- Short-staple cotton
- Long-staple cotton
- Extra long-staple cotton
- Egyptian cotton
- Pima cotton
- Supima cotton. cotton requires 8000-10000 liters of water for one kilogram of cotton, and in dry areas, it may require even more such as in some areas of India, it may need 22500 liters also thus known as thirsty crop. Water footprint of cotton fiber is larger than the other fibers.
- The earliest known history of cotton goes back to Indus Valley civilization, 3,000 years BC. Natives of Egypt’s Nile valley were also known to making and wearing cotton clothing.
- In 800 A.D. Arab merchants brought cotton cloth to Europe. When Columbus discovered America in 1492, he found cotton growing in the Bahama Islands. By 1500, cotton was known generally throughout the world. Cotton seed are believed to have been planted in Florida in 1556 and in Virginia in 1607. By 1616, colonists were growing cotton along the James River in Virginia.
- Cotton was first spun by machinery in England in 1730. The industrial revolution in England and the invention of the cotton gin in the U.S. paved the way for the important place cotton holds in the world today.
- Eli Whitney, a native of Massachusetts, secured a patent on the cotton gin in 1793, though patent office records indicate that the first cotton gin may have been built by a machinist named Noah Homes two years before Whitney’s patent was filed.
- The gin, short for engine, could do the work 10 times faster than by hand. The gin made it possible to supply large quantities of cotton fiber to the fast-growing textile industry. Within 10 years, the value of the U.S. cotton crop rose from $150,000 to more than $8 million. Herodotus mentions Indian cotton in the 5th century BC.
What Makes it Stand Out
- In world, cotton is comfortable fabric.
- It is strong and highly absorbent fabric can hold water 24 to 27 times by their own weight.
- Strong, dye absorbent and can stand up against abrasion wear and high temperature .
|Texture||Cotton is soft & stretchy textured fabric .|
|Sheer||Thick or sheer|
Application & Usage
Cotton can be used to make clothes, homewares, and industrial products. In addition to textile products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, book binding and archival paper.
New Age Innovations
Organic Cotton: Now a days people are getting more towards sustainability So Organic Cotton is produced by growing cotton without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers or pesticides. In the United States, organic cotton plantations are required to enforce the National Organic Program (NOP). The global trend towards sustainability has also made way for certification
1. GOTS certificate defines standards covering harvesting of the raw materials, environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing to labelling.
2. OEKO-TEX certification promises that “every component of the textile product, every thread, button and other accessories, has been tested for harmful substances and the product therefore is harmless in human ecological terms.
3. ISO is an acronym that stands for the International Organization for Standardization. ISO textile testing standards cover many aspects of international textile production.
How To Judge the Authenticity of Cotton?
1. Touch it! Even cotton fabric that is sturdy, thick and or even stiff should feel soft on the skin. If it doesn’t, it was probably made with shorter fires and will be less durable in the long run.
2. Check the density of the fabric by holding it up to a light. Even if it is very fine, the fabric should not be transparent. If the fabric lets through a lot of light, it’s a sign that it is not very dense and therefore will not be very durable
Care Instruction of Cotton
- Wash in cold (30°C or below) water, whether using a washing machine or washing by hand.
- Give garments a gentle stretch when they come out of the wash to get them back into shape.
- Always air dry: dry clothes flat and out of the sun if possible.
- If you have an item that you know is prone to more than 10% shrinkage, hand wash it in cold water.
- Cotton is very prone to creasing so it is often necessary to iron it to try to avoid too much ironing
Wool is the natural fabric obtained from hairs of animals spin into yarns to produce warm clothing for winters. It is known for its durability thermally insulating property depends on various types of hairs of animals. After cotton wool is the most used textile in the world.
What is Wool?
Wool consists of 97% protein and 3% fat which makes it unique for certain applications. Wool has various attributes such as naturally crimps contributes to wool insulative properties the bulkiness of wool fabric naturally taps air.
Different types of wool are :
1. Merino Wool- It is the most commonly used wool in the world obtained from merino sheep used to make different garments and industrial material. Its diameter is 20 micron which makes fine quality products.
2. Cashmere Wool- It is the most expensive wool originated from furry goats of Kashmir region. It's price is high due to the fact that Kashmiri goats produced 150 grams of wool per year.
3. Mohair Wool- It is obtained from angora goat has thick and wavy hair wool which is naturally highly crimp woolen textiles.
- Wool is a type of fiber that is obtained from sheep and some other animals. Wool from goats is called cashmere and mohair, from muskoxen is qiviut and from rabbit - angora. It is used for fabrics because it is easy to spin (individual fibers attach to each other and stay together). It also has scaling and crimp and because of that it is more bulky which causes it to retain air and with air - heat. That helps with isolating the body from outside cold but also from the heat. It is also easy to felt the wool.
- Although human race domesticated sheep somewhere between 9000BC and 7000BC they were more hairy than wooly and had to be bred by selection somewhere around 6000BC. First woven wool garments date from 400BC to 300BC. At about the same time woolly-sheep came to Europe from the Near East. In the beginning, wool was plucked from the sheep by hand or by bronze combs. The first shear appeared in the Iron Age. In Roman times, the finest wool came from Tarentum, a coastal city in today’s Puglia, Southern Italy.
- In medieval times the wool trade became serious business and whole series of fair, like Champagne, were mainly based on wool trading and economy of whole regions depended on it. Major exporters of raw wool were England and Castile. Wool; trade was so important for England that it imposed special tax laws on wool export and the presiding officer of the House of Lords has sat on the "Woolsack", a chair stuffed with wool which was a symbol of the pre-eminence of the wool trade. After the Restoration fine English wool began to compete with silk on the international market.
- The Medici and other great houses of Florence had built their wealth on their textile industry based on wool. In the 16th century, Spain allowed export of Merino lambs, a breed of ship that gives highly valued type of wool, only with royal permission. The German wool market in time overtook British wool which in turn was overtaken by Australia's colonial economy which was based on sheep raising.
- In middle 20th century, wool production falls because of the appearing of the synthetic fibers. Super wash wool (or washable wool), a type of wool that is specially treated so it can be washed in machine and tumble-dried, first appeared in the early 1970s. This type of wools is produced by washing of wool in acid or by coating the fiber with a polymer. Both methods lessen the number of scales which attaching to each other while washing untreated wool in water and cause shrinkage. In 2007, a new wool suit was made from Australian Merino wool in Japan that can be washed in the shower and dried within hours with no ironing required.
- Wool is generally used for clothing but it is also used for blankets, horse rugs
What Makes it Stand Out- Wool keeps extremely warm and allow air to retain heat.
- It is highly water resistance and retain 30% of their own weight in water before it starts to leak.
- Wool is a biodegradable fabric can decompose in 3to4 months the time of decomposition depends on variety of soil, climate, characteristic.
- It is recyclable fabric shredded into individual fibers and reused to make new clothing.
|Texture||Soft to medium brushed|
Wool fabric is commonly used in sweaters, hats, gloves, and other types of accessories and apparel and popularly in industrial applications for its durability and flame-retardant qualities.
Application & Usage
New Age Innovation1. Flame-resistant fabric is heavy, inflexible and uncomfortable to wear Scientist work on wool properties to improve flame protection and make fabric breathable and absorbent to make it comfortable to wear.
2. Digital printing : Chemicals and water usage are significantly reduced when choosing digital printing, and inks can be recycled to minimise environmental impact.
3. Technology have facilitated the use of wool in footwear. Combining wool with different yarns in a shoe upper draws on wool’s natural properties to promote dryness, breathability, freshness (anti-odor), comfort and warmth.
Burn test: Original wool fabric will catch fire and maintain steady burn.Burnt wool fabric have smell of burning hairs. This is to identify fibrous material and other material.
How to Judge the Authenticity of Wool?
Care Instructions of Wool
- Preferred hand washing for woolen fabric which is 100% animal yarn if made of synthetic blend yarns can do machine wash and choose a wool detergent and a gentle/wool cycle.
- Dry away from direct heat or sunlight.
- Dry clean once a season is sufficient to keep it in good shape.