Denim Fabric

Denim Fabric

What is Denim? 

The term "denim" derives from the French "serge de Nimes", meaning "serge (a sturdy fabric) from Nimes". 

Denim is a strong cotton fabric made using a twill weave, which creates a subtle diagonal ribbing pattern. The cotton twill fabric is warp-facing, meaning that the weft threads go under two or more warp threads, and the warp yarns are more prominent on the right side.

Denim is available in a range of colors, but the most common denim is indigo denim in which the warp thread is dyed while the weft thread is left white. Denim is popular across national and cultural boundaries, and the denim jean has become a symbol of American culture the world over.

Types of denim fabric are :
 
1. Raw denim: This type of denim has not been washed or treated. Generally, it is worn for six months to a year without washing to make sure it forms to the wearer’s body. Raw denim enthusiasts often resort to putting their jeans in the freezer overnight to kill off microbes and bacteria.

2. Sanforized denim: Sanforized jeans are softer, they are also less durable, and they aren’t as personalizable as raw denim jeans.

3. Stretch denim: In this type of,  cotton has been mixed with spandex or a similar material. The resulting fabric is stretchier than normal denim, so it is commonly used in form-fitting applications like skinny jeans.

4. Crushed denim: It has a permanent wrinkled appearance that make it appealing for jackets and skirts.

5. Selvedge denim: Selvedge denim has a fringe at the end, and this fabric is commonly used to make jackets.

6. Acid wash Denim: It is made by washing raw denim in strong acid that eats away at the dye and Features an iconic mottled appearance.

7. Poly Denim: It refers to the denim products made with mix of cotton, polyester, materials like lyocell and nylon are sometimes added to cotton to make denim products.


History

  • The word “denim” comes from the French serge de Nimes, which refers to a particular type of fabric that was produced in Nimes, a town in France.Warp-faced cotton weave style became popular throughout the region, and this popularity spread into neighboring Italy.

  • Sagot therefore buys the denim canvas from the Venice region of Italy, made on an old shuttle-loom from the 1950sDenim was invented in 1851 by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss and a worn still but in a different context. Jeans are named after the city of Genoa in Italy, a place where cotton corduroy, called either jean or jeane, was manufactured.

  • In 1851 Levi Strauss came from Germany to New York to join his older brother who had a dry goods store.In 1853 he heard about Gold Rush in the West so moved to San Francisco to establish Western Branch of the family dry goods business. There he sold, among other things, cotton cloth. One of his customers was Jacob W. Davis, a tailor from Reno, Nevada. Davis made functional items such as tents, horse blankets, and wagon covers.

  • One day, his customer ordered a pair of sturdy pants that could withstand hard work. He made them from denim that he bought from Levi Strauss & Co and made them stronger by placing copper rivets at the places pants rip the most: pockets and flies. When he wanted to patent them, he wrote to Levi Strauss, and they became partners.

  • They opened a bigger factory, and that is how jeans were born.Davis improved the strength and durability of the denim workwear using metal rivets; because Levi’s fabric was so integral to them he proposed a partnership . They became partners and on May 20, 1873, the two men received U.S. Patent 139,121 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The patented rivet was later incorporated into the company’s jean design and advertisements. The manufacturing of denim overalls began in the 1870s and the company created their first pair of jeans in the 1890s.

  • It was only after the 19th century that competitors for the denim market began to appear: namely Wrangler (1905) and Lee (1911).

  • In the early 20th century, denim was adopted as the preferred workwear fabric choice for western cowboys, miners, farmers in the US. Not only was the fabric cheap, but denim was more durable and sturdy than the popular alternative – ‘jean’ (traditionally made from cotton, linen and wool). After Levi’s & Strauss patented the metal rivets to make them more hard-wearing, they began producing the iconic denim blue trousers that became a common feature among working men. It’s thought that Levi’s jeans were first introduced to the East during the dude ranch craze of the 1930s.

  • In the 1940s, the -American GIs brought their beloved denim pairs with them overseas. Although the production of denim workwear declined during the war, due to shortage of the raw materials needed to produce them, the end of the war marked a change in their perception. The denim jean became less associated with workwear and more closely linked to leisure wear.

  • In 1950s the dark hue and stiffness of denim made it a popular fabric for trousers . Zippers were incorporated for the first time in 1954 and the younger generation began to wear denim trousers as leisurewear.

  • From the late 1950s, denim was readily associated with rebelliousness, individuality and self-expression. Students began wearing jeans to college and the humble jean trouser became an unofficial uniform at protests, discos and all range of social activities. At the same time, women were starting to embrace sexual liberation through their clothing. Their denim jeans came to reflect this spirit as they wore bolder styles with slimmer waists and wider, ‘bell-bottoms’.

  • In 1970s demand grew for flared and bell bottom styles, the trend spread from the US to Europe and was no longer associated with the niche hippie movement. Decorated denim also rose in popularity as people chose to customise their jeans with sequin, embroidery, paint or beads. Denim jeans became a sartorial route to individuality.

  • In 1980s, new finishes such as acid wash became popular and the denim skirt and ripped jeans make their mark in the sector too. Was also a pivotal point for denim as more fashion designers began incorporating the fabric into their collections. Brands such as Calvin Klein and Armani launched designer jeans for the first time, ushering in the age of premium denim.

  • In 1990s ushered in another era in denim culture and styling with the emergence of baggy jeans and dungarees. Also saw the rise of the ‘boot cut’ – a slimmer, more subtle denim flare more suitable for daily wear – as well as the wide-legged JNCO style, which were extremely wide from the waist down. Oversized denim jackets, paired with jeans of a contrasting shade of indigo, became a key look with celebrities during this era.

What Makes it Stand Out

The property which out stands denim is its  durability and thickness.

 Texture Brushed 
Fall No 
Shine No
Sheen No


Application & Usage

Denim is used for clothing , home furnishing & accessories like jacket, pant, shirt, denim wine bags, denim pencil case, denim apron, denim pillows, denim quilt etc.

 Clothing Yes
Home Furnishing Yes
Accessories Yes

New Age Innovations

Denim fabric certifications available: There are quite a few organizations that provide certification for denim products.

1.Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)- Whether it’s cotton, wool, or silk, GOTS has made it its mission to determine the authenticity of organic, natural textile products. The GOTS logo is widely recognized as a sign of quality.

2.Supima certification- If you produce your cotton in the United States using organic cultivation processes, you might be eligible for Supima cotton certification. This group is highly selective with its licensing, but Supima cotton denim products are renowned the world over for their connoisseur allure.

3.Cradle to Cradle- This group makes sure that natural textile manufacturers follow struct sustainability and safety standards.


How to Judge the Authenticity of Denim?

  • Abrasion resistance
  • Color fastness to rubbing
  • Color fastness to washing.


Care Instructions of Denim

  • Wash fabric in cold water so that color will not fade.
  • Turn your jeans or denim items inside out – this should minimize fading and wear-and-tear.


Reference Links

https://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/7504/denim-fabrics-recent-developments

https://s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/files.sewport.com/fabrics-directory/what-is-denim-fabric-properties-how-its-made-and-where/Patchwork%20Denim%20Trenchcoat.jpg 

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